Case Study Nürtingen 2
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Core Question 1: In how far does this project reveal your concept of future landscapes?
In the present conditions of our planet, the climate change is fight that everyone has to be involved in. There are no differences in regards to your social background; it is affecting every single one of us on this planet. Although it is everybody’s war, certain professional has a bigger role to play than the others and one of them definitely is profession of Landscape architects.
Landscape architects have the potential to be on the frontline of tackling the issues; we are trained to plan and design for a better quality lifestyle. Our work provides comfort to people, which is a lacking factor in the solution against climate change. Most great ideas are either neglected or abandon, not because of its ability to reduce the green house gases but because of its ability to provide comfort. We are constantly redefining comfort and providing effortless solutions to climate change, which can already be found in most of our designed space. However, the success of most landscape projects are witness only after the project completion and tested with accurate analysis the amount green house gases reduced. How about during the construction period, are there any tests to show much harmful gas that is released due to the project’s implementations?
As mentioned in an article “The Carbon Landscape” written by Craig Pocock, he worked out a conservative carbon footprint for the materials he has specified over the last fourteen years and offset it with the amount of trees he has planted. The results were astonishing; in carbon volume (tons) he has in fact released a total amount of 15475 tons into the atmosphere and was only able to offset 498 tons in total.
As a Landscape architect, we should not only reduce the green house gases in our already polluted atmosphere but also stop the emission of such gases. There is a need for us to rethink how our projects are carried out,right from the very beginning. Every materials and methods have to be analyzed and reconsidered.
Future landscape should be installations that does not requires lots of transportations, constructions, and should cater to the contemporary needs and responsive to the cultural, economy and historical context. Most of all, it should be in harmony with nature and should poses little or no impact on the natural environment.
In reference to the discussed project, “Greeting to the Sun” by Nikola Basic, the installation, in my opinion has most of my concepts of a future landscape. Other than modular glass panels and steel, the project consists of only local limestone. This could be easily obtained within the territory. The design itself is simple, elegant, near invisible and poses no conflict to the existing historical site and at the same time present a strong narration of the cultural heritage of the city. Furthermore, the project produced enough energy to function on its own and even sufficient to power the entire port, greatly reduces the carbon footprint of the area. Last but not least, it integrates with the environment, creating a poetic dialogue with the sea and sun.
In conclusion, the project eliminates carbon emission and responds to the fragile site sensitively. If given the opportunity, I will hope that the project could also feature functions in absorbing harmful pollutants. That will overall be a prefect future landscape.
Landscape and/or urban context
The city of Zadar is surrounded by mountains, sea and flat land. The different attitudes presents varieties of flora and fauna.
Wildlifes like the wolves, mountain goats and bears are frequently spotted in the mountain forests.
A large area of Zadar is dedicated to National Parks. Several are situated in the mountainous region and four of them in coastal region.
An amazing number of fishes can be spotted just along the coastline of the city. That will include also dolphins.
Kornati Islands in Zadar are the wildest and most indented archipelago of islands of Croatia. It consists of about 147 isles and rocks. Most of the areas are unpopulated. The park has a deep bay that is 9 kilometers long and 1 - 2 km wide. In all there are 25 bays, 5 isles and a Mediterranean vegetation of nearly 300 spices<http://travel.mapsofworld.com/croatia/zadar-tours/wildlife-in-zadar.html>.
Cultural features, Overall Character and History
Although critical to the development of the city, the prefect geological formations does not comprises of only wealth and growth. During the early medieval ages till the late 20th century, Zadar went through a series of triumphs, wars, rulings and destructions. As a result, both its political and physical landscape were constantly destroyed, rebuilt and evolved.
The days of Roman domination has left the city with Roman urban character. The town was planned with typical Roman system that organised the town into rectangular street plan. A forum, thermae, a sewage and water supply system was all part of the master plan. Which has all became part of the unique character of Zadar <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zadar>.
The history of instability cost it to lose most of the historical structures, most prominently were those built during the Roman Empire. In the events of reconstruction, the city constructed new buildings instead of replicating these structures to its original appearances. About the same time (6th century) it was hit by an earthquake, which destroyed entire complexes of monumental Roman architecture, whose parts would later serve as material for building houses<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zadar> . That contributed to the many different architecture styles existing in Zadar, according to the period in they were rebuilt. Most of the significant historical buildings still existing are made up of generally Romanesque architecture<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zadar>.
Although new building emerged, the soul of the city’s long heritage are well preserved within the new structures. Many of its structures still bear the same materials that were once used in the ancient construction. Walking through the ancient city, one can witness the textures and colors of the centuries old limestone in the buildings.
In defense to the threats from multiple nations, the city of Zadar was fortified with walls and towers offering protections from both the sea and inland. These walls have long existed since the Roman Empire and have been intensively strengthened along with its history to block off invaders. The walls and towers thus became a biography of the city, not only documenting the events and occurrences but it actually grew with the city. Under Venetian rule, Zadar was subjected to attacks from the Ottomans, so city defences were fortified as the building of new walls commenced in the 16th century <http://www.visit-croatia.co.uk/northdalmatia/zadar.htm>.
Illustration: Map; sketches; short descriptive analyses
Cultural/ Social/ Political context
The geographical location and history have the biggest part to play in the culture of Zadar. The location of the city greatly shaped how people lived their lives. It was first established because of its coastline, an ideal coastline for a port.
In the early days, trading activities are carried out, city grew economically strong and opportunities are created. Population increased, life survival revolves around the sea, thus forming a strong culture between human and nature. Large number of the population lived their life as expert seaman, fishermen, traders and merchant. The Liburnians were known as great sailors and merchants, but also had a reputation for piracy in the later years <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zadar>.
As a colony of the Roman Empire, Roman Catholic has a significant influence over the land since the very beginning. This resulted in a number of churches and monasteries.
At the present moment, Zadar is a powerful cultural and economic city whose life is comfortable all year round. It is also a tourist’s magnet, attracting mass of visitors every year. Thanks to its political efforts and Unesco, historical heritage are preserved, beautiful coastlines are maintained and magnificent natural landscapes are reserved. Under the legal framework, majority of the structures in the ancient city are considered ‘untouchable’ and highest priorities are given to preservation of historical monuments, structure and cultural aspects.
Despite its high level of preservation, the ancient city provides combinations of the past, present and future. Visit the traditional events or contemporary events like the full moon nights, Zadar dreams, Millennium jump, Kalelarga art... Enjoy the Mediterranean cuisine, taste the sweet Maraschino cherry liqueur, and take a swim from one of the sandy beaches in the Zadar area! <http://www.adriatictraveller.com/ru/destinations-croatia/north-dalmatia/zadar.html>.
Major industries include tourism, traffic, seaborne trade, agriculture, fishing and fish farming activities, metal manufacturing and mechanical engineering industry, chemicals and non-metal industry and banking<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zadar>.
The city is also enjoying economy blooms, which boost sequences of new infrastructure to the City. These new proposal includes luxury apartments, huge shopping malls and also water treatment plants and are mostly located within the new urban part of Zadar, which is separated from the ancient city by a waterway. Although divided and located away from the historical sections, these new proposed plan has everything to do with the old city. Zadar is the only Croatian city to be fully prepared for the arrival of the highway, with completed urban and development plans; the city has attracted many investors who have already pumped hundreds of millions of euros into the Zadar region (Zeljko 2008)
Zadar continues to grow and development into the future but at the same time, preservations is emphasized on its long and unique heritage.
Spatial analysis of area/project/plan
- What are the main structural features?
- How has it been shaped? Were there any critical decisions?
Spatial analysis of area/ project/plan
Located at the very tip of the ancient city, the site presented a series of sensitivity factors that have to be deal carefully. What used to be a trading port has now become a harbor for massive cruise liners, bringing in international mass crowd.
Within a few hundred meters away is a Unesco protector site, protected area includes not only the Romanesque architecture but also the which a historical Roman forum.
The site stands on a promenade between a new cruise harbor and the ancient city. It is therefore, a transitional point between international and homeland, tourists and the city, nature and urban, contemporary and ancient.
A part of this seafront contained also a promenade, very dear to the Zadar citiziens, but due to its small depth not in operative function. It used to be neglected,very dark and deserted in the part where the sea organ is located today. That was the reason for my decision to revitalize this space by providing it with an interesting urban attraction(Nikola 2008).
Decision was made revamp the promenade, Which resulted in two outstanding projects. The first was Sea Organ and the second was Greeting to the Sun, both created by the same architect.
The earlier installation, “The Sea Organ” is an installation which produces sound through its pipe structure according to the rhythm of sea waves.
A beautiful piece of landscape installation that engage relationship between man-made element and nature. It is a contemporary structure but at the same time designed with great consideration for the cultural heritage of the ancient city. Using only limestone from the region it tackles the ecological and cultural aspects . It was also a project that received worldwide recognitions. The installation was made renowned and has since become a tourist attractions.
Due to the success, the city commissioned Nikola Basic for another project which is just a few meters away from the Sea Organ. The new installation would thus be a part of the new city development plan.
In other words, the city is in need of a project that will see the city into the future but at the same time present its historical heritage and culture.
Illustration: Map/diagram/sketches photos and background notes
Analysis of program/function
take a look at the slide 7
Analysis of design/planning process
take a look at the slide 8
Analysis of use/users
take a look at the slide 9
Core Question 2: What is the role of landscape architecture in this project?
There are two major reasons why this project goes under ‚landscape’ typology.
LOW ENVIRONMENT IMPACT ‘Greeting to the Sun’ project by Nikola Basic is made out of local materials that have been transported from neighbouring regions, reducing carbon footprint to environment. Beside that the installation itself does not spend any additional energy for producing visual sensations. On a contrary, it produces energy by gathering solar power and translates it into electrical energy. In this seance ‘Greeting to the Sun’ monument can be observed as a ‘clean’ electricity generator not only for its self, but also for the whole port.
CULT OF THE SUN Project ‘Greeting to the Sun’ emphasise the importance of sun as a natural recourse. It is no coincidence that a monument dedicated to sun has been erected in this particular city. Sea together with Sun are deeply cut into economic, social and cultural profile/landscape of this city. Citizens of Zadar have almost cultist relation to Sun, because it influence their life in great scale. Basically their very existence as it is now, depends on the Sun. Tourism represents major financial income for the city, and it is directly influenced by good weather- Sunny days. Sunny days are also very stimulating for social interaction- drinking coffee with friends, taking a walk or a sunbath or swimming in see among other people.
So whether it is lowering emission of noxious gasses or emphasising economic, social or cultural identity landscape approach plays a major role in this project, and I could not imagine it any different or better, then it is actually designed.
You may add 1-2 more core questions as discussed in your group
Issues: Wildlife in Zadar , 2010 [online]. Available from: http://travel.mapsofworld.com/croatia/zadar-tours/wildlife-in-zadar.html [Accessed 12 November 2010]
Zadar, 2010 [online]. Wikipedia Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zadar [Accessed 19 November 2010]
Zadar, Main Sights Architecture 2010 [online]. Wikipedia Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zadar [Accessed 19 November 2010]
Visit Croatia, 2009 [online]. Available from: http://www.visit-croatia.co.uk/northdalmatia/zadar.htm [Accessed 20 November 2010]
Zadar, 2009 [online]. Available from:http://www.adriatictraveller.com/ru/destinations-croatia/north-dalmatia/zadar.html [Accessed 20 November 2010]
Željko, R., 2004. ZADAR'S ECONOMIC BOOM [online]. Nacional Neovisni News Magazin. Available from: http://www.nacional.hr/en/clanak/18440/new-highway-makes-zadar-more-successful-than-zagreb [Accessed 20 November 2010]
Barbara, S., 2008. An interview of Mr. Nikola Bašić [online]. CROWN Croatian World Network. Available from: http://www.croatia.org/crown/articles/9541/2/Spectacular-Monument-to-The-Sun-in-the-city-of-Zadar-by-Nikola-Ba%B9i%E6 [Accessed 20 November 2010]
Zadar Attractions : The Greeting to the Sun and Sea Organ, 2010 [online]. FIND CROATIA. Available from:http://www.adriatictraveller.com/ru/destinations-croatia/north-dalmatia/zadar.html [Accessed 20 November 2010]
Craig, P., -. The Carbon Landscape [online]. Carbon Landscape. Available from: http://www.carbonlandscape.co.nz/ [Accessed 21 November 2010] ---
Fig.6., Pula, 2010 [online]. Wikipedia Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pula [Accessed 19 November 2010]
Fig.7,11,12,13,14,16., Zadar, 2009[online]. Adriatic Traveller. Available from:http://www.adriatictraveller.com/ru/destinations-croatia/north-dalmatia/zadar.html [Accessed 19 November 2010]
Fig.8., University of Zadar, 2002 [online]. Availablefrom:http://www.allthelyrics.com/forum/general-discussion/46447-home-sweet-home.html [Accessed 20 November 2010]
Fig.10., Stadt Tor Porta terraferma, 2010 [online]. Wikipedia Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stadt_Tor_Porta_terraferma,_Zadar_8.JPG [Accessed 21 November 2010]
Fig.15., Welcome to Zadar, 2010 [online]. ArrivalGuides.com Available from: http://beta.arrivalguides.com/en/Travelguides/Europe/Croatia/ZADAR [Accessed 21 November 2010]
Fig.17., Sea Organ, 2008 [online]. Oddmusic Homepage. Available from: http://www.oddmusic.com/gallery/om24550.html [Accessed 21 November 2010]
Fig.19,20., Greeting to the Sun,2008 [online]. Availablefrom:http://rijekadailyphoto.blogspot.com/2008_10_01_archive.html [Accessed 21 November 2010]
Fig.21., The Greeting to the Sun,2010 [online]. Availablefrom: http://www.visitzadar.net/events.php?id=9&el_id=2413 [Accessed 21 November 2010] About categories: You can add more categories with this tag: "Image References", add your categories