Conflicts among the stakeholders of Lake Mogan Special Protection Area during the conservation
Rationale: Why is this case study interesting?
Lake Mogan and its surrounding is a Special Protected Area (SPA) which is very near to Ankara City centre. It has declared as a protected area because of having rich and internationally important biodiversity and fragile wetland ecosystems. The area is a part of a watershed system in Ankara and it is one of the important natural areas supporting the ecological sustainability of the city.
In 2001, Lake Mogan Park Project has completed and began to serve as a very large recreational area in this protected area. This project has ignored the importance of the biodiversity and the fragile ecosystems of the area.Today, the area is being used only as a recreational area by very different and large user groups. Therefore Lake Mogan and its surrounding has lost nearly all its natural values because of the degradation caused by the Project.
The main problems and the main reasons in this process are conflicts among the stakeholders, lack of coordination&cooperation among planning&administrative institutions of the area and demand based management approaches.
So, this case may be an example for damaging natural areas because of unwise management and short term benefits/objectives.
- For the ecological sustainability of the nature, fragile ecosystems have to be protected, without any permission to any kind of human use.
Landscape and/or urban context
- Biogeography, cultural features, overall character, history and dynamics
The Mogan Park is located, in the south of Ankara City, in Gölbası Municipality. It is nearly 20 km far away from Ankara City center and the altitude is approximately 970 m (Figure 1)(Altunbilek 1995, Anonim 2001).
Mogan Park is constructed on the west shore of Mogan Lake which is one of the main components of the Mogan – Eymir Lakes watershed system (941 km2). Due to their ecological and recreational significance, The Mogan and Eymir Lakes which are under the pressure of intense urban and industrial pollution and the wetlands and moorlands in the close surroundings are defined and declared to be “Gölbaşı Special Environmental Protection Area” (Gölbaşı SPA) with the Cabinet of Ministers’ Decree on 22.10.1990, based on the Environmental Law article 9. Lake Mogan, the main driving force of planning and design of Mogan Park is located on the north of Gölbaşı SPA (Altunbilek 1995, Anonim 2001). See the link below for details. http://www.ockkb.gov.tr/EN/Icerik.ASP?ID=132
- Brief explanation of culture, political economy, legal framework
- How did the area/project/plan at the focus of the case study evolve?
Illustration: Table or time line
Spatial analysis of area/project/plan
Location of Mogan Park in Gölbaşı SPA
- Main structural features and function at Mogan Park project
- How has it been shaped? Were there any critical decisions?
Core Questions Working Group Nature Conservation / Water
What is the role of user groups?
The user groups of Lake Mogan are;children,young people,middle age people,inhabitants in the Gölbası Municipality and near the Lake shore,inhabitants in the Ankara City, small cafe/restaurant enterprises,fishermen,birdwatchers,scientists.
Most of the users are using the area for recreational purposes. Some of the recreational activities in the Park are; boating, canoeing,horse riding,jogging, open air cinema,picnic,recreative fishing,tennis,tivoli,walking.
Birdwatchers have been doing the bird counting in the area for several years. These activities have contributed to train new birdwatchers and also, to have a bird record for the Lake Mogan and surrounding. Lake Mogan has been used as a case area for various reseaches. These researches have contributed the physical, chemical, biological and social data base of the area. Therefore, both birdwatchers and scientists have an essential role for the conservation and wise management of Lake Mogan. Although this is not the case for the area in the real, these users develop a potential for the conservation of the area.
What is the role of the city?
Ankara City in which Lake Mogan located is the capital of Turkey. Its population is nearly 5 million people but the existing open-green spaces are not sufficient for the increasing demand of inhabitants to these areas. So, Lake Mogan Project was developed to meet this requirement of the city. Because the Lake and near surrounding has various natural potentials for recreation. Currently this natural area is under pressure of a large user group coming mainly from Ankara and wide range of activities and land uses in the Park area and near. Some of the other important factors which negatively affecting the natural area are dense highway traffic, lack of infrastracture (sewerage system)in second house settlements and in small enterprises (such as restaurant, cafe...)
In planning and management scale, Ankara Metropolitan Area Municipality and Golbasi District Municipality have organic connections in each other So, planning and management of the Lake and its surrounding has also been affected by Ankara Metropolitan Area Municipality planning and management decisions and practices.Additionally, second house demand of the city inhabitans along the Lake is also affecting the development direction and concept of the area near the Lake.
How do urban and natural structures interact?
As a result of hard surface constructions and covers, natural drainage system (surface water flow) has negatively affected from the Project. Therefore, water income to the Lake has decreased.Accordingly, wetland and aquatic ecosystems has degraded; flora and fauna habitats and populations have been degraded by the project.Along the some parts of the Lake shore, marshes have been burned and destroyed to construct a walking path. As a result of this implementation, bird habitats are degraded.
What is the role of water?
The Lake and its surrounding has always been a favorite natural area for Ankara city. In the Lake Mogan Park, water is the main element that shapes the project decision, project design and implementation. Furthermore, water; Lake Mogan is essential for the sustainability of the project.
What is the evolution of the urban relation between humans and nature?
2001 Ankara Municipality
Lake Mogan and its surrounding is a Special Protected Area (SPA) which is very near to Ankara City centre. It has declared as a protected area because of having rich and internationally important biodiversity and fragile wetland ecosystems. The area is a part of a watershed system in Ankara and it is one of the important natural areas supporting the ecological sustainability of the city. In 2001, Lake Mogan Park Project has completed and began to serve as a very large recreational area in this protected area. This project has ignored the importance of the biodiversity and the fragile ecosystems of the area. Today, the area is being used only as a recreational area by very different and large user groups. Therefore Lake Mogan and its surrounding has lost nearly all its natural values because of the degradation caused by the Project. So, this case may be an example for damaging natural areas because of unwise management and short term benefits/objectives.
Analysis of program/function
- What are the main functional characteristics?
Analysis of program/ function
Lake Mogan Park Project has made by the Ankara Metropolitan Area Municipality . The project area is located in Golbası Municipality.
In the “Structural Landscape Setting” area the following areas have been contructed on 130.435 m²;
- Vehicle roads , shoreline route/ paths , pathways
- Open spaces
- Car parks
- Open sports grounds
- Play grounds
- Picnic sites
- Babycar and minicar ring
- How have they been expressed or incorporated?
Mogan park has a linear plan and location along the east shore of Lake Mogan.
Recreational activity areas in the park are located and connected related with the view of Lake and seight seeing.
Analysis of design/planning process
Mainly, according to the location and design concept that shaped the Mogan Park project formulation-implementation&currect use of the Park,there has been several problems, mistakes and conflicts in the formulation&implementation process of the Park.
By the concept and plan of the project, extremely high number of people(recreationists) and very large hard surfaces have been introduced and directed to the Lake Mogan shores.
Unfortunately, project area is one of the most fragile zones od Golbasi SPA. There are different reasons for the unwise and destructive intervations to a legaly proctected and intenationally important natural area. Some of these are;
- lack of environmental awareness and different priorities of stakeholders
- lack of communication & collaboration among project designer-local autorities-NGOs-scientists-public
- Unwise use of political power
- the main aim of the project is to cover "recreation demand" of the citizens in a maximum level in all available activities in the project area.
As a result of this background, the project was designed and implemented against to ecological sustainability of Golbasi SPA, legal obligations related to the SPA and 1/25 000 scale Environmental Plan of the SPA. In this high level plan, the project area has been determined as one of the most fragile parts of the Golbasi SPA. Therefore, EIA of the project seems unrealistic or may be inadequate.
There has been serious arguments during the project implementation among the stakeholders. A very large reed area was burned and therefore, bird habitats were destroyed during the project implementation.
SPA officials-NGOs-scientists-public and Golbasi Municipality representitave had several consultations inorganized meetings but representatives and officals have refused to participate this platform and process for a long time. But there is some positive progress in the communication of the stakeholders of Golbasi SPA.
Analysis of use/users
- How is the area/project/plan used and by whom?
- Is the use changing? Are there any issues?
The main function and user groups are not changing. Only the number of people using the area for recreational purposes is changing according to the seasons.
Future development directions
Mogan Park project has finished and implemented two three years ago. Since that time there is no change in project.
However, plantation in the project area is not successful enough, plants are not growing as supposed in the project.
Also, there are some additional, outdoor furnitures and playgound toys which are not supposed in the project by the designer.
There is no different goal for the future. The main goal for the Park is to sustain the recreation function of the Park.
At the same time, it is still the goal to conserve the biodiversity and ecological functions of Mogan Lake and related ecosystems in the watershed.
Therefore, one of the important aims related to the area is to contunie the protection status of Golbasi SPA
Peer reviews or critique
- Has the area/ project/plan been reviewed by academic or professional reviewers?
- What were their main evaluations?
Pleas add references, quotes...
Points of success and limitations
- The main points of success and limitations of the Mogan Park project
What can be generalized from this case study?
Harmony is essential between Project area-Project design&functions&capacity-Stakeholders in nature conservation.
Which research questions does it generate?
How can be the harmony achieved among stakeholders-nature-projects?
Please add literature, documentations and weblinks
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