Group V - Collaborative Climate Adaption Project
|Topic||please enter the topic here|
|Author(s)||Ana Cecilia Martinez Marletta; Negar Mehryar; Sandra Streipert; Tina Vetter|
- 1 Rationale: Why have you selected this case study area?
- 2 Authors' perspectives
- 3 Landscape and/or urban context
- 4 Cultural/social/political context
- 5 Local Climate
- 6 Analysis of vulnerability
- 7 Proposals for Climate Change Adaption
- 8 Proposals for Climate Change Mitigation
- 9 Your scenario
- 10 What can be generalized from this case study?
- 11 Presentation Slides
- 12 Image Gallery
- 13 References
Rationale: Why have you selected this case study area?
- Please summarise:- e.g. previous experience, is it your everyday environment?, specific vulnerability, previous research being done etc.
Tehran is the hometown of one of the group members and it is her everyday environment. Tehran is the mega city in the north of Iran and has a good climate which is suffering most from air pollution and crowded population. Other issues that become relevant in this city and regional level are related With The climate as dust storms and floods. Precipitation tend to increase in the wettest areas while in the drier areas decrease. This fact influence the agronomy. Other changes in the weather is snowy winter which starts earlier than expected
- What theoretical or professional perspective do you bring to the case study?
Tehran is situated on a plain at the foot of the Alborz Mountains Presents diversity of climate and terrain. In the relief find a fault beneath the Alborz chain and several smaller faults located in the plains of the south of the city. For this reason the city is exposed to earthquakes. The city does not have major water resources. It is located at an equal distance from two major river basins that collect water coming from the mountains located upstream. Suffers the problems of the big cities of the world: air pollution and hearing, traffic congestion, social class difference. The northern suburbs of the city, located in height on the slopes of Alborz, are the suburbs of the population of the upper middle class of the capital. To the south, toward the desert, are the most popular neighborhoods and industrial. Currently air pollution and rapid population growth are major issue and vulnerability. The environmental capacity for the proper development of quality of life, is insufficient.
Landscape and/or urban context
- Biogeography, land use patterns, cultural features, overall character, history and dynamics
Tehran province is located in the north of the central plateau of Iran. It has common borders from north with Mazandaran, from east with Semnan, from west with Qazvin and from south with Qom. the area of this province is about 18,909 square kilometers and includes Tehran, Damavand, Ray , Shemiranat, Shahriyar, Varamin and Islam Shahr; Savoj Bolaq and Karaj were also 2 parts of this province which has been seperated since 2 years ago and now have become independent provinces. The highest point of the province is Damavand peak, 5,678 m. and the lower parts are the plains of Varamin, 790 m. above sea level. Mountain ranges such as the Alborz in the north; the Savad Kooh and Firooz Kooh are located in the north east; Lavasanat, Qarah Daq, Shemiranat, Hassan Abad and Namak Mountains are in the southern territory; Bibi Shahr Banoo and Alqadr are situated in the south east and the heights of Qasr-e-Firoozeh being located to the east of the province. There are many ancient areas dating back to 6000 years ago have been found in the surrounding regions of Tehran such as Cheshme-Ali, Gheytariyeh, Darrous and Chizer. According to historical documents, until the Moghul Invasion, Tehran was a small village and one of the four parts of Ray. It was selected as the Capital of Iran in 1200 AH. and since then has been the political, cultural, economical part of the country.
- ratio of green/blue and sealed/built-up areas
- urban green space 79154757 m2
- public parks 17422904 m2
- urban green belt 37000 hectares
- per capita urban green space 6.5 m2
Illustration: Map; sketches; short descriptive analyses
- Brief explanation of culture, political economy, legal framework
Illustration: Bullet points, image, background notes
Culture The are many interesting buildings in Tehran. Most from the Qajar time, including the Golestan Palace (till 1979 the seat of the Shah) and the Shah mosque. The largest theater is the Vahdat Concert Hall with about 1000 seats. Other theaters are the Rudaki Hall (home of the Rudaki Orchestra) and the Nasr (oldest theater in the city). Improtant museums are based in the capital city: the Archaelogical Museum, the Abgineh Museum with an exhibition of Iranian pottery, the Rhea Abbasi Museum with a collection of Iranian calligraphy and paintings and the Carpet Rassam Cultural with a carpet weaving school. Finally mentioning is the Saad abad-Palace.
Tehran has about 800 parks. Known parks are the Daneshju-Park, Sa’ei-Park and the Navaran-Park in the South of the palace.
Economy and Transportation Industrial firms are producing in the province cotton textiles, food, cement and bricks. The National Oil Company, based in the capital city, manages the oil industry in the country. The economy is largely controlled by the government. In private hands are only small firms. The educational and media center of Iran is in the capital city. Major universities are the University of Tehran and the Sharif University of Technology. 3 airports offer the province an international aviation. Overland buses connect the province to Europe. Tehran has an excellent motorway network. The province also has rail links to all parts of the country.
- What are the climatic conditions at present? Have there been extreme weather events in the near past?
- Which changes are expected? Is there any evidence?
The Iranian capital has a continental climate. It varies greatly depending on the altitude. The elevated north Tehran enjoys cooler temperatures than the southern part of the city, situated on the fringes of the central Iranian desert regions. The summers are dry and hot. The average values for July are in the south of the city at about 30 ° C (in the north to 25 ° C). Winters are cold (in the North in January 2 ° C, 5 ° C in the south). It often snows in the north and west of Tehran, while in the south of the city, the sun is shining. There is a total of little rainfall. The mean average temperature is 16.5 ° C. In the region on average 230 mm of precipitation falling. In summer, temperatures reach 40 ° C. But the summer nights are cool. The coldest month is January. The temperatures fall to an average value of 2.2 ° C, which corresponds approximately to the statistically average January temperature of Cologne.  The warmest month is July, with an average of 29.7 C ° Most precipitation falls from December to April with 28 to 37 millimeters on average, the least from June to September with one to three millimeters on average.
Air pollution is one problem in Tehran. Another problem are the earthquakes, registered measures between 3-5.
Illustration: Table or time line: http://atlas.tehran.ir/Default.aspx?tabid=242
Analysis of vulnerability
- If you consider these potential changes - which aspects/functions of your case study would be affected?
Illustration: Map/diagram/sketches/photos/background notes
In several aspects Tehran province is vulnerable. Climate change if it follows its course until today can be the following predictions for this site.Tehran suffers from an inadequate and insufficient supply of water.The city received large amount of immigration and is expanded without any kind of planning which result in poor infrastructure to meet the demand of its inhabitants.This overflow of unsatisfied needs took human waste which is not treated properly and again be placed in the water than will again be used.Half of Iran water supply comes from the mountains and melted glaciers The prediction of a future with temperatures more high puts at risk the supply of water in this region.Climate change is predicted to bring waves of heat, cold and winter periods decreased more early.Precipitation will be more intense in areas wet causing many times damage in Agronomy and therefore decreasing the supply of food for the supply of the population.In the cities, this increase in rainfall could cause flooding if the systems of drain water were not properly prepared for so much contain of water in a short time.In areas adds more you arid drought due to the decrease of rainfall in these areas and again impact the culture and the food available for the inhabitants.The air pollution is an issue that is currently already affecting and influencing the quality of life of its inhabitants.none standard vehicles with poor quality fuel are the main and the most important reasons of air pollution in Tehran which are causing blindness and abortion in addition to serious illnesses like Cancer and health problems. Many days the sky, due to contamination particles suspended in the air, has a gray color.The activity of the inhabitants is interrupted by periods of time by the level of pollution which reached the air, and may not leave their homes.Due to its location, located at foot of mountain chain bathrobe and about faults, it may suffer from strong earthquakes.These last usually 7.0 magnitude although in some events it has passed this measure.
Proposals for Climate Change Adaption
- How could your case study area become more resilient to climate change?
- Which measures would need to be taken to adapt to the new situation?
- How could you assure sustainability of these measures?
- Please describe 2-3 measures
Implementation of Public green space development has the initial priority to decrease the air pollution of Tehran Province. The other measures and suggestions which could be considered (as ignorance of sanctions) are:
- 1.Public transportation expansion
Metro and Bus lines expansion, also wide spreading the use of electric cars
- 2.General changes in urban planning and design pedestrian and bicycle ways
- 3.Making public transportation tax-free and available in all parts of this mega city could encourage the society not to use their own private vehicles and to supply financial sources, receiving poll taxes can be considered.
- 4.Increasing time table schedule of public transportation would help this matter.
The other fact which has an important role on utilization of public transportation is the sense of security and being safe for people especially for women and the children.
- 5.Technical examination certificate issuance
Increase the technical examination centers / vehicle technical examination obligation
- 6.Education and acculturate
The press and media have important and grand role, they can aware society of environment conservation and risks and hazards of its damage and deconstruction
- 7.Air pollution measurement
- 8.Getting pollutant Motorcycles out of order which produce 8 times of standard limit pollution
- 9.Making away pollutant factories located in 120 radius of Tehran
- 10.Prohibition of construction in prevailing winds direction
- 11.Controlling Air, Soil and Water pollutions
- 12.Promotion and Correction of vehicles and fuel quality
Utilization of solar resources
- 13.Management and urban traffic engineering improvement
- 14.Thoroughfares engineering
- 15.Producing vehicles which use clean fuel
Proposals for Climate Change Mitigation
- Which measures would need to be taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other drivers of climate change within your case study area?
- How could you assure sustainability of these measures?
- Please describe 2-3 measures
Energy consumption productivity improvement and saving energy considered as the important economic measurements in order to green house gases reduction and mitigation. Iran’s energy sectors include Gas, oil, electricity and coal. Non-energy sectors such as Farming and Agriculture, Forestry and Waste. Designing a suitable plan for reducing Green House Gases emissions in both energy and non-energy sectors is important. Iran’s non-energy section mitigation strategies include:
- -Modern farm and livestock management,
- -Protection of forest resources, control and treatment of waste water, disposal management and Waste recycling.
The impact of rising Green House Gases(GHGs) and the emission of CO2 due to enhanced farming and agricultural Production, Over-harvesting and destruction of forests that affects the natural carbon cycle Increasing amounts of solid and liquid wastes that emit methane [] The following primary activities will be effective in decreasing CO2:
- - Forestry and forest rehabilitation,
- - Using native species that absorb more carbon,
- - Prevention from over-harvesting,
- - Transform livestock out of the forests,
- - Correct use of land, soil and water resources considering the capacity of the ecological unit,
- - Protection of forests and range lands for suitable ecosystems
[] The proposed policies in the waste sector can be summarized as:
- - Solid waste disposal management;
- Recovery of GHGs to produce energy; - Recycling and composting; - Urban waste water collection and treatment; - Optimization of treatment plants; - Applying new technologies for treatment; - Recycling and reuse of treated waste water; - Storage and treatment of industrial waste water under aerobic conditions; - Prevention of CH4 formation by primary and secondary treatment - Recovery of CH4’s energy and/or flaring of CH4 Changing the feed composition and patterns of feeding can mitigate GHGs by: - Using feed formula for reduction of methane production, - The production of high quality feed material by biotechnological methods for methane reduction, - Making available feed concentrate for farmers, - Providing methane inhibitors as feed additives or supplements for control of methane production, - Providing sources of nitrogen, sulfur and other mineral nutrients in dry season, supplied as urea, - molasses blocks left in pastures to increase roughage, digestibility and productivity of livestock and finally reducing methane yield. []
Future of Tehran depends largely on the policies adopted by the state of Tehran province directly influenced by the decisions of Iran. Climate change is so complex that it requires the binding and action of the world's countries for mitigation and adaptation. Assuming that climate change and continue with the process expected predictions, Tehran and many of the world's cities suffer in varying measures the problems that brings this change in terms of planning and awareness that each country developed through aha the years to address their vulnerabilities. Teheran particularly if it is a city that now has a lot of pollution, is a modern city, with plans currently to be able to face earthquakes by construction and engineering plans. The education of the new generations growing up and experienced environmental pollution, are expected to be aware and you to realize the necessary changes to mitigate this problem Tehran is a city which absorbed very heterogeneous social, cultural and this made the city itself also change. Therefore in the future positive changes are expected granting him better quality of life for its inhabitants
What can be generalized from this case study?
Teheran is another case of the current modern cities which receive large amount of immigration either neighboring cities or other countries. Your job, education, and consumer activities is what attracts this many people. The city started to grow and before such infrastructure demand in some areas its expasion is done improperly. This phenomenon corresponds to the theory of centrality, where people want to stay close to the area where it performs as many activities for the benefit of reducing the time spent on its obligations and the costs of making transfers or earned time off a time to produce more or reassign staff to satifaccion. In this way, service systems, infrastructure, environmental capacity collapse. Climate change will bring more difficulties for which the world will have to adapt. There are still hopes of scientific discoveries that help to mitigate the issues. Countries will have to choose between policies enhancing their capital at any price or sustainable policies that ensure the quality of life of its inhabitants many countries are adopting green policies which rewards and financially support those private capital that implement sustainable projects. The future is projected in awareness and cooperation and joint action of different countries.
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