Bánffy Castle in Bonţida, Romănia

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Name The International Built Heritage Conservation Training Centre, Bánffy Castle, Bonţida
Place Bonţida
Country Romania
Author(s) Wendy-Laura Cînţa
Project start 1999
Completion ongoing (initially 20 months)
World Heritage 1999 - on the list of the 100 most endangered monuments in the world
Client Transylvania Trust Foundation
Project costs 2 million Euros (until now)


<googlemap version="0.9" lat="46.835301" lon="23.667984" zoom="11" height="500" controls="small"> 46.920138, 23.80924 Bonţida </googlemap>

Rationale: Why is the case study interesting?

  • Please summarise:- e.g. Design Innovation? Planning Exemplar? Theoretical Insights? Lessons from its failure?

Bánffy Castle from Bonţida near Cluj Napoca, also known as the “Transylvania’s Versailles” is one of the most important historical assets in Transylvania, with a significant cultural, architectural and landscaping influence throughout this region. [1]

The Castle of Bontida is now being restored as a cultural center. An apartment is being prepared for the use of the Count’s family. It was owned by the Bánffy family (of which the last member was Miklós Bánffy). The owner is Countess Katalin Banffy, who has 2 daughters, Nicolette and Elisabeth, but she leased the Castle for a period of 49 years to the Transylvania Trust Foundation. [2] [3]

Built Heritage Conservation Training Centre - set in 2001

The purpose of the centre is to promote excellence in the conservation of the historic environment and specifically to teach traditional building craft skills which can be used in the repair and maintenance of historic buildings.

The Centre promotes a policy of Minimal Intervention in dealing with the repair of historic buildings, combined with a strategy of Compatibility in techniques and materials, and the use of local resources. It promotes a philosophy of analysing, understanding, and recording historic buildings before and during intervention. [4]]

The International Built Heritage Conservation Training Centre, Bánffy Castle, Bonţida - opened on the 26th of August 2005

Highly valued for its double approach: training for conservation and conservation through training. It is an excellent example of cross border exchange of knowledge and a worthy winner of an Europa Nostra award in the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue. So far more than 800 trainees (craftsmen and university students) participated in the training, from 13 european countries and overseas, being specialised in rendering, masonry, carpentry and stone masonry skills, use of traditional materials and techniques in the restoration of historic buildings. The teaching activities contributed to the restoration of the former kitchen block, the Miklos building, the entrance gate and partially the stables. Training modules are also organised for landscape, art historian and archaeology students.

Author's perspective

  • What theoretical or professional perspective do you bring to the case study? Please make a short note on your personal background

Author's personal background

University of Agricultural Sciences of Banat, Timisoara, Romania – Faculty of Horticulture – Landscape Architecture Department – graduated in 2008

Postgraduated studies – Faculty of Architecture – Politehnica University, Timisoara, Romania – Department: Urbanism – Master in Urbanism – graduated in 2009

2008/2009 - urban planning, architectural designing, architectural CAD drawing - in a large office of Architecture Planning in Timisoara, Romania

2009/2011 - IMLA (International Master in Landscape Architecture) Hochschule Weihenstephan, Freising, Germany

Oct.2009 / Febr.2010 - Internship in blue! advanced european projects office in Freising, Germany

Cultural landscape context

  • Biogeography, cultural features, overall landscape character, history and dynamics

Biogeography, cultural features and overall landscape character

Located on the right bank of the Somesul Mic river, Cluj-county Bontida village is located in the north-western Transylvanian Plateau, close to the contact between the Transylvanian Plain and Somes Plateau, 30 km from the city of Cluj and 17 km from the town of Gherla.

The name of the village would mean in Hungarian "the bridge of Boncz", an inhabitant of the old settlement, Benko Boncz, who, according to the legend, built a bridge over the Somesul Mic river, to establish contact with the army of Tuhutum, located on the right bank of the river. The bridge remained in local tradition as the Bridge of Boncz (in Hungarian Boncz-Hid), hence the Romanian name of Bontida.

Bontida village covers an area of 8.083 hectares and has over 5,000 people spread in four villages: Bontida, Rascruci, Coasta and Tauseni.

The landscape is hilly and the area is crossed by the following rivers: Somesul Mic, Borsa Valley, Gadalinului Valley and Sicului Valley.

History and dynamics

The Banffy Castle from Bontida in its beginnings

The castle was built in the baroque and renaissance styles and dates from 16th century. According to a military report, a fortification system already existed, that surrounded the manor house. It is suspected that on this spot a nobiliary residence existed since 14th century, when Baron Banffy received from King Albert the permission to build a fortress. In 1387, the buildings and surrounding land became the property of the Banffy family, as a gift from King Sigismund.

The construction started in 1437 and was finished in 1543. The construction of today’s castle was initiated by Denes Banffy and lasted between 1638-1674, having as architect the Italian Agostino Serena. A flourishing architectural age for the Transylvanian Versailles

His heir, Denes Banffy II reconstructed the castle beginning with 1745 in baroque style, following the plans of the Viennese architect Joseph Emmanuel Fischer von Erlach. The reconstruction was concentrated on the honor courtyard from the front of the gate building, and was inspired from the Viennese baroque architecture. New buildings have been constructed, such as: the stables and the homes of the servants. He was also the one who gave the castle its new shape, that of two wings in the shape of the letter U.

A new wing was built in 1850 by the architect A. Kagerbauer, while Johann Nachtigall sculpted the “Metamorphosis” of Ovidiu through imposing stone statues which decorated the gate.

Jozsef Banffy decided the demolition of the gate tower in 1820, uniting the renaissance courtyard with the baroque one, and from the remaining stone the close by water mill was constructed. He also decided the transformation of the baroque park into an English romantic one.

Enduring a time of destruction during the WWII

In 1944 the castle was evacuated of its owners by the German troupes in order to use the castle as a military hospital. The building was seriously damaged at the end of the WWII, when the German troupes that were retreating, attacked, robed and burned the entire ensemble. The entire furniture, the well known portrait gallery and the library were destroyed.

The baron Nicolae Banffy, the owner of the castle at that time and also the last owner of the castle initiated a negotiation of Hungary with Romania so that both states change camps and turn against Germany. The devastation of the castle is considered to be a vendetta of the German government. Struggling through the Communist Era

In the still functional wing of the castle, in 1950 was installed the Bontida Agricultural Production Cooperative. The lack of any maintenance and the nationalization of the buildings and of the park has lead to the serious degradation of the castle.

The Art Museum from Cluj Napoca was able to save the statues from the baroque park, keeping them under storage in the donation section, where they are to be found today.

In the 60’s the Historic Monuments Direction tried to restore the castle, but the lack of funding could not lead to any concrete action. The castle was still used for the storage of construction materials, the park became a pasture zone and the trees have been cut down as fire wood.

In 1963, the Banffy castle was used as a film-set for shooting the "Forest of the Hanged", directed by Liviu Ciulei. Being in need for a fire, the scenarists lit a one of the buildings, and despite the fact that the incident took only a few minutes of video, massive damage was caused.

The well deserved recognition of its value

After the fall of the Communist Era, in 1990, the castle was declared a historic monument and in 1999 the restoration and rehabilitation began. Decisive in this matter was the collaboration of the "Institute of Historic Building Conservation" from Great Britain, the Office for Cultural Protection of the Patrimony from Hungary and The Ministry of Culture and Cults from Romania.

The restoration works have been made under the high patronage of Prince Charles of Wales, which visited the site numerous times.

The objective can be visited, is hosting restoration courses and even weddings and in one of the buildings there is even an Art Café. [5] [6]

Illustration: Map; sketches; short descriptive analyses

Socio-political context

  • Brief explanation of political economy, legal framework

Generally speaking, in Romania, historical monuments don't have any mission and play no role in the life of the community. In Western Europe the benefits of using the built heritage are well known, which is seen as an agent for increasing the life quality through social and economic development and through the active involvement of citizens, which leads to social cohesion within the community. At the same time there is a lack of consideration for traditional crafts and the use of traditional materials in restoration works that could lead to the sustainable development of the region and to the formation of a group of specialists, which is necessary for the protection of the cultural heritage. [7]

Actual trends are dealing with the change of the value judgment which, beginning from the second part of the 20th century, started to move in the wrong direction in Transylvania/Romania. This was also the case with the built cultural heritage. As we learned, it is a gargantuan challenge, a bold initiative. The survival instinct in itself of the financially and morally bereft inhabitants of Transylvania/Romania is insufficient to deliver sustainable built heritage management. The regeneration process is slow, slower than the disappearance of the heritage values. Without the dramatic change aspired to for 60 years now, the heritage will gradually disappear. [8]

Aid support fields:

• Research and documentation is needed, because just the known values can be saved;

• Education and training is needed, because results can be achieved only in societies that know and acknowledge the value of the heritage by adequate number of highly skilled professionals. The “educated” society will support the issue, and the historic building conservationists need training;

• The owners of the heritage values need support, to have someone to turn to with their problems;

• The exchange of knowledge and expertise with professionals facing the same problems from other regions is very important;

• Last, but not the least, examples need to be set, to illustrate the possibilities of conservation on practical projects. [9]

Transylvania Trust is the main NGO involved in this project.

Integrated heritage protection projects (Transylvania Trust Working Field) are designed to implement the conservation strategy. In these projects, vernacular heritage is ensuring the sustainability of a village community.

Examples of projects developed by Transylvania Trust:

- Rimetea heritage conservation project;

- Transylvanian Versailles, revitalised through the training of professionals (Built heritage conservation training centre at Bánffy castle, Bontida);

- providing appropriate infrastructure for postgraduate and Phd training (Built Heritage research and training centre, Breaza).

Illustration: Bullet points, image, background notes

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Spatial analysis of area/project

  • What are the main structural features?
  • How has it been shaped? Were there any critical decisions?

Illustration: Map/diagram/sketches photos and background notes

Analysis of idea/program/function ("Planning Objective")

The Professional training in built heritage conservation project (Transylvania Trust Working Field) addresses a number of levels, in all cases having an accredited partner-institution (PhD Students, Centre of excellence, Postgraduate Studies, Field study project for graduate students, and the Built heritage conservation training project). [10]

Aim of the Project: Using the cultural heritage as a factor for educational, cultural, social and economic developement for the benefit of the community - pilot project: Banffy Castle, Bonţida [11]

  • What are the main functional characteristics?

The activities at Bánffy castle are directed at a wide audience with the aim of promoting the historic environment as a location for training, education, cultural activities and enjoyment. The project also brings benefits to the local and regional community, by ensuring social inclusion, community development and development of local businesses.

Objectives of the project:

1. employing the built heritage as a stimulus for social cohesion within the community, economic development, dialogue between cultures and generations

2. training of traditional crafts and building techniques

3. preservation of immaterial heritage- local traditions- by involving youth

4. raising awareness among institutions and local authorities and promoting measures requisite to the protection and the effective use of the built heritage

5. facilitate access to culture in an under-privilidged area

6. making the public sensitive to the importance of the protection of cultural heritage

Prospective results:

1. Building- up the knowledge of insitutions and local authorities regarding the effective use of the built heritage, which is a factor for increasing life quality through regional sustainable development based on local values, and also applying the knowledge in prospective development projects.

2. Increasing the number of specialists in traditional crafts, both at the local and national level, and increasing employment opportunities for people coming from underprivilidged social groups.

3. Raising awareness of the importance of historical monuments and their integration in the life of the community by employing the initiatives of the local community, thus ensuring the long term protection of the heritage.

4. Establishing a thriving cultural life in the rural area; preserving local traditions; social, intercultural and interethnic cohesion in the region [12]

  • How have they been expressed or incorporated?

The BHCT Centre encourages a holistic approach to historic building conservation, recognising that the care of the historic environment is not the remit of a single group of specialists. Many disciplines are involved in its care, and therefore in addition to its practical courses it offers specialist workshops to other participants such as Landscape Architects, Building Historians and Archaeologists, who also have a role to play within the historic environment. Through its wider educational programme, the Centre seeks to raise awareness of the value of the historic environment and directly involves the local community and schools in developing social and citizenship programmes. [13]

The simple presence of the training centre stopped local people from using the site as a source of building materials. The most endangered parts of the building were stabilized and gradually functional spaces which now serve the teaching process with accommodation; catering and other facilities were created in the former ruins. [14]

Illustration: Map/diagram/sketches photos and background notes

Analysis of design/planning process ("Process Biography")

  • How was the area/project formulated and implemented?

The Built Heritage Conservation Training Centre has been based at Bánffy Castle, Bontida since 2001.

The purpose of the center is to promote excellence in the conservation of the historic environment and specifically to teach traditional building craft skills which can be used in the repair and maintenance of historic buildings; whilst in parallel undertaking the restoration of an endangered major historic building (the Grade A listed Bánffy Castle). [15]

It is run by the Transylvania Trust (one of the leading NGO's in Romania dealing with protection of the historic environment), and the Institute of Historic Building Conservation (IHBC, the leading insitute in this field in the UK). [16]

Description of the implementation strategy and key activities

The implementation of the project requires a double strategy as follows:

1. Enabling institutional and professional conditions, which are necessary for a comprehensive protection strategy of the cultural heritage Activities

a) „Built heritage – stimulus of the community” – capacity building of local authorities and governing bodies regarding the importance of the protection and the effective use of the built heritage in order to achieve sustainable development

b) programme of the international built heritage training center – teaching traditional crafts by applying the knowledge directly on the historical monument, which contributes to the professional training of university students and of youth from the region, especially those coming from under-privileged social groups.

2. Effective use of the built heritage for the benefit of the society – usability of the historical monument so as to become a revitilizing agent of the economic, social and cultural life of the local community


a) organizing innovative cultural events at historical monuments

b) organizing educational activities for children

c) organizing programs intended to pass on the traditions and to facilitate intercultural and intergenerational dialogue

Project implementation period: 20 months

• Activity 1: Media Prize

• Activity 2: Built heritage conservation traning

• Activity 3: Bontida Cultural Days

• Activity 4: Heritage Days [17]

  • Who initiated the project and why?

In 1998 the British Council and the Romanian Ministry of Culture, recognising the need to develop a built heritage conservation strategy, invited the Transylvania Trust and the Institute of Historic Building Conservation (IHBC) to design and implement a project to promote historic building conservation in Romania. The result is now the Built Heritage Conservation Training Centre at Bánffy Castle, Bontida. The program initially began in 1999 in the UK, was transferred in 2000 to the Bethlen Gábor College in Aiud, Romania, and since 2001 has been based at Bánffy Castle, Bontida, where the courses have been developed to meet international demand. [18] [19]

  • Which stakeholders have been involved?

Many people and organisations have been involved in the implementation of the Training Courses since their inception at the castle in 2001. More than 800 students participated in the international training, from 13 european countries.

The main partners of the Transylvania Trust are:

- the Institute of Historic Building Conservation (represented by David Baxter, its European Projects Director)

- the Mayor and the Local Council of Bontida

- the National Office of Cultural Heritage, Hungary

HRH, Princess Margarita of Romania, is the Royal Patron of the training centre, since 2006 (August 11). [20]

Project Partners

1. Elementary School of Bonţida

2. Elementary School of Răscruci

3. Bontida Town Hall

4. Folkeuniversitetet I Fjellregionen, Norvegia

International cooperation

The BHCT project over the past few years has established co-operation with a number of institutions:

   * Ministry of Culture and Religious Affairs, Romania
   * Europa Nostra
   * Icomos, UK, Romania, Hungary, USA
   * Consultancy Centre for European Cultural Programmes, Romania
   * National office of Cultural heritage, Hungary
   * World Monuments Fund
   * The Prince of Wales Charitable Foundation, UK
   * Architectural University of Sibiu (actually a Bucharest branch), Iasi, Timisoara, Bucharest
   * Landscape Department - Faculty of Urbanism, "Ion Mincu" University of Architecture, Bucharest
   * Gotland University, Sweden
   * Folkeuniversitetet, Tynset, Norway
   * Architectural Association,  UK
   * British Council, Romania
   * British Council, Western Europe and Americas
   * Budapest University of Economic Sciences and Public Administration, Faculty of Landscape Architecture, Development and Protection

Financial support has been offered by:

- EEA Financial Mechanism Norwegian Financial Mechanism (an Instrument of the Governments of Iceland, the Principality of Liechtenstein and Norway)

- Environmental Partnership, through the Living heritage programme

- The Headley Trust

- The Getty Foundation (the Getty Grant Programme)

- The World Monuments Fund

- The European Union - through Culture 2000 (framework programme in support of culture in 2005 and 2006) and Phare Programmes (Phare 2002, through the Ministry of European Integration)

- The Romanian Ministry of Culture and Religious Affairs

- Ministry of National Cultural Heritage, Hungary

- The National Office of Cultural Heritage Hungary (KOH)

- National Cultural Fund, Hungary

- The British Council

- The British Embassy (Romania)


- HRH The Prince of Wales

- private companies such as S.C. Bronto Comprod S.R.L and S.C. Secpral Pro Instaltii S.R.L., both companies from Cluj, which have directly supported the work of the Centre [21]

The total amount of funds raised so far for the project is in the range of 2 million Euros. Funding has had to be sought on an annual/bi-annual basis as there is no long term sponsor for the project. [22] [23]

  • Who made the major decisions and when?

  • Were there any important consultations/collaborations?

Besides the ongoing collaborative work to support this initiative among the local and regional institutions, the project itself wanted to be a public-opened one, so that involvement, awareness and sustainability could go hand in hand to better future concepts.

Festivities to involve the public - BONŢIDA CULTURAL DAYS (the 8th EDITION - 2009 AUGUST 29-30) The event attracts yearly over 6000 visitors.

Short overlook on the 7th BONŢIDA CULTURAL DAYS - 30-31 AUGUST 2008

Expositions, horse riding demonstrations, diverse children’s activities, concerts, Renaissance dances and many other cultural performances comprised the program of the 2008 Bontida Cultural Days. Organized every year during the last weekend of August, this 7th edition of the event attracted around 4,000 visitors to the courtyard of the Bánffy castle.

The festival’s opening began with Renaissance songs and dances offered by the Ensemble Passamezzo, and they were followed by speeches delivered by political personalities of Cluj-Napoca County. During the day, in addition to interactive scout programs, board games, wine tastings, textile design and photography expositions, anyone interested could participate in traditional furniture painting, stone carving or other handcraft workshops. Saturday night was booked for music concerts and followed by late night film projections in the old chapel of the Main Building.

On the second day, while similar activities brought the same excitement to the atmosphere of celebration, the star attraction was the annual presentation of the giant puppets, Hentida and Bontida. A considerable number of the crowd was involved in their animation - a dance performance which is, in fact, a quick glimpse of the marriage episode from the traditional folktale. Before noon, the puppet and illusionist shows drew the excitement of children, while later that afternoon, the highlight became a series of dance shows and concerts. Finally, to close out the celebration were a series of Romanes songs and dances performed by the Roma Ensemble of Bontida. These dances fit perfectly with the expectations of the crowd that was gathered around the stage eagerly waiting for the dance to start.

Illustration: Map/diagram/sketches photos and background notes

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Analysis of use/users

  • How is the area/project used and by whom?

The Built Heritage Conservation Training Centre provides teaching modules, each of 2 weeks duration, which offer theoretical and practical understanding of the care of the historic environment, through lectures delivered by lecturers from British and Romanian universities and other specialists, provided through simultaneous translation in Romanian, English and Hungarian, and through practical workshops in Rendering, Masonry Consolidation, Carpentry and Stone Masonry led jointly by Romanian and British craftsmen, where students learn through practical restoration projects directly on the castle buildings.

The courses are available to craftsmen who are already within the building industry, and to university students (mainly Architecture and Structural Engineering) who are able to undertake their vocational training through the BHCT Centre. Students attending the courses have come from Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Sweden, France, Brazil, Australia, Belgium, USA, and UK.

The Centre's educational approach incorporates partnerships with local schools and colleges through environmental awareness programmes and direct participation in some practical aspects of the courses.

The Heritage Days, organised for the schools from within the region, enabled more than 140 children to participate in special teaching programmes developed through an innovative curriculum in a partnership between the BHCT Centre and the schools/teachers.

In addition to its practical courses it offers specialists workshops through its field study facilities to other participants such as Landscape Architects, Building Historians and Archaeologists. [24]

At the end of each course a Diploma (Certificate of Achievement) is presented to successful students. The Certificate is accepted by the Ministry of Culture and is widely acknowledged within the building industry in Romania as having special value and recognition of quality.

The Transylvania Trust in association with the Babes-Bolyai University from Cluj runs the only Post Graduate Diploma Course in Historic Building Conservation in Romania. Students from that course undertake their practical training through the BHCT Centre.

  • Is the use changing? Are there any issues?

Illustration: Map/diagram/sketches photos and background notes

Future development directions

  • How is the area/project evolving?

New links on student trainings are being developed with Norway, the Czech Republic, Sweden and France. [25]

The dates for this year's teaching modules of the Built Heritage Conservation Training Centre are:

     Module I. – 3-17. July 2010. (rendering, carpentry and stone masonry)
     Module II. – 24. July - 7 August 2010. (rendering and carpentry)

How to participate

        1. as individual, to register on one of the modules
        2. as an organization, to book the facilities for specialised courses    [26]

  • Are there any future goals?

In the longer term, the project will develop a partnership with commercial enterprise, which will see the development of hotel and conference facilities, and a restaurant in parallel with the BHCT Centre, workshops and museum. This process has already begun with the opening of the castle’s Art Café in November 2001.

The support of the local community through individuals, and particularly through the Local Council of Bontida, has been instrumental in developing and managing this change. [27]

Illustration: Map/diagram/sketches photos and background notes

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Peer reviews or critique

  • Has the area/project been reviewed by academic or professional reviewers?
  • What were their main evaluations?

Please add references, quotes...

Winner of the 2008 “European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage/Europa Nostra Awards” category - Education, training and awareness-raising

The International Built Heritage Conservation Training Centre at Banffy Castle Bontida has been awarded the main prize for Education, Training, and Awareness Raising by Europa Nostra and the European Commission in 2008. A special ceremony took place in the UK at Durham Cathedral on 12th June 2008.

Europa Nostra is the pan-European Federation for Cultural Heritage and is one of the most influential and respected heritage bodies in Europe. "This is the first time that such an award has been made and we are therefore very honoured to be the first recipients. In its statement regarding the award, Europa Nostra wrote the project is highly appreciated for its twin approach: training for conservation / conservation through training. The Built Heritage Conservation Training Centre is an excellent example of cross border exchange of knowledge and a worthy winner in the 2008 European Year of Intercultural Dialogue." [28]

Successes and limitations

  • What do you see as the main successes and limitations of the area/project?

Through the project the physical restoration of parts of the castle have been achieved:

1. Restoration of the former kitchen block, and its conversion into accommodation and catering facilities for the students of the BHCT Centre, as well as opening the Art Café, (a commercial café now run jointly by the Transylvania Trust and the Local Council of Bontida).

2. Restoration of 2 floors of the Miklós building and conversion into lecture rooms and conference facilities, library, teachers’ accommodation as well as workshops.

3. Restoration of the former chapel within the main building, and conversion into a community cultural hall

4. Partial Restoration of the former stables within the Court D’Honneur and partial conversion into workshops for the use of the training centre as well as for maintaining the traditional crafts skills within the local community.

5. Partial restoration of the main entrance gate and adjacent rooms, and conversion into a visitor reception and exhibition area, as well as a lapidarium, presenting the archaeological finds collected by our art historian and archaeology students from within the different buildings of the Castle complex.

In terms of the social inclusion and community building, the project encourages wide public participation. This was particularly highlighted through “The Bontida Cultural Days” held each year since 2001, at the last weekend of August, whereby the public are invited to visit the castle, experience the work of the project, see craft demonstrations from the BHCT craftsmen, and enjoy cultural presentations of traditional music and dance from Romanian, Hungarian Jewish and Rroma groups, classical music, and children’s special crafts programmes which included the British Council’s Magic Pencil initiative. [29]

Illustration: Summary table

What can be generalized from this case study?

  • Are there any important theoretical insights?

Short statement plus background notes

Built heritage is more than just old houses, castles, churches, museums - they are “living” evidence of our past, culture, craftsmanship, history, lifestyle, etc. They were left to us as a legacy by our ancestors, to at least maintain them and to hand them over to the next generations. Historic buildings need care and attention, but they offer benefits in return – they add value to our life in so many ways. They contribute to a “human” environment, a space to live, work, relax in – to enjoy. Through tourism, trade, cultural activities they bring regeneration to a region, by creating new workplaces, market for local products and services. [30]

Regeneration through conservation

The continued development of the BHCT Centre at Bánffy Castle offers an opportunity for the revitalisation of the local economy. The project offers employment for local people, and by purchasing goods and materials locally (from bricks to vegetables), it helps to stimulate local enterprise.

International interest in the castle and the work of the project continues to bring many visitors through the development of cultural tourism. [31]

What research questions does it generate?

Short statement plus background notes

International Conference at PÉCS, Hungary, European Cultural Capital 2010 - 27 June – 1 July 2010

The international conference on Heritage at Risk in South-east Europe is the final event of the Heritage without Borders: Redefining Cultural Values through the Built Heritage of SE Europe project, financed by the European Union, through the Culture programme.

This project is based on an international co-operation, being led by the Transylvania Trust, and co-organised by National Office of Cultural Heritage (Hungary), Cultural Heritage without Borders (Sweden, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Albania, Kosovo), the Butrint Foundation (UK, Albania), and Dubrovnik Preservation Foundation (Croatia).

The purpose of this Conference, organized in partnership with Europa Nostra, in the framework of Pecs-European Cultural Capital is to familiarize the participants with the issues related to the built cultural heritage of South-East Europe and to try and find ways of addressing the problem. [32]

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